1997). (A) Picture of the modified Protecta Jr. bait box used during 1999, 2000, and August and September 2001. Less than 0.1 g (AI) was applied to each bait box on 44 properties situated on ≈40 ha during the 4.5 mo of treatment. P. Developing community-wide strategies that are effective yet environmentally sound for the control of I. scapularis has become paramount in many Lyme disease endemic areas of the northeastern and upper midwestern United States. L. A. D. E. Posttreatment trapping was conducted at monthly intervals from June through September all 3 yr to determine 1) distribution and density of mice on properties, 2) tick burdens on treated and untreated animals, and 3) prevalence of infection with B. burgdorferi in mice in treated and untreated sites. (Des Vignes and Fish, 1997) Comparison of flagging, walking, trapping, and collecting from hosts as sampling methods for northern deer ticks, Direct cultivation of the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Evaluation of flea control strategies using fipronil on cats in a controlled simulated home environment, Lyme borreliosis: relation of its causative agent to its vectors and hosts in North America and Europe, Modified bait tube controls disease carrying ticks and fleas, Evaluation of permethrin-impregnated cotton balls as potential nesting material to control ectoparasites of woodrats in California, Lyme disease and babesiosis: acaricide focused on potentially infected ticks, Reducing transmission of Lymedisease spirochetes in a suburban setting, Landscape ecology of Lyme disease in a residential area of Westchester County, New York, Laboratory evaluation of fipronil and imidacloprid topical insecticides for control of the plague vector, Seasonal variation of transmission risk of Lyme disease and human babesiosis, Lyme disease/Lyme borreliosis, pp. The number of reported Lyme disease cases reached an all-time high in 2002 with 23,763 cases (Centers for Disease Control 2004). T. M. Novel approaches to controlling tick populations include host-targeted methods. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. At 42 d after treatment, only 6% of nymphal ticks fed to repletion in the group treated with 0.75% fipronil compared with 74% on untreated animals (Table 1). A standard method of flagging treated properties and untreated areas was followed; flagging was conducted where ticks were most likely to be present for each property, and properties were sampled for the same duration (Maupin et al. Moreover, given the effectiveness, use of only a small amount (72.65 g) of fipronil for ≈60.7 hectares of risk area ensures minimal environmental impact to reduce risk of Lyme borreliosis in this community. The bait box prototype used from May through July (Prototype 2) had severe overall design flaws. Mather Figure 1. The immature stages of I. scapularis that parasitize white-footed mice are nymphs that are most active from April to July, whereas larvae feed mainly from July to September. M. L. J. F. Hyde It is caused by a spirochete bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted to humans through bites from the Western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) in much of the Western United States and by the blacklegged or deer tick (Ixodes scapularis). Ribeiro Dolan Passive application of fipronil significantly reduced the infection rate of Borrelia burgdorferi among white-footed mice by 53%. Results of subsequent research at several mainland sites are in accordance with levels of control seen on our island setting (G.O.M., unpublished data). Fipronil-treated bait boxes were in place by 15 May all 3 yr. (B) Infestation rates of mice including New Areas. Tick infestation rates on mice in these New Areas were nearly identical to untreated controls. NexGard kills adult fleas and is indicated for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis), and the treatment and control of Black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis), American Dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum), and Brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations in dogs and puppies 8 weeks of age and older, weighing 4 pounds of body weight or greater, for one month. J. In comparison, fewer mice (29.1% of 452 mice) (P < 0.05) were infected in the Nauyaug Pt. G. O. 1998). In 1999, pretreatment trapping was conducted in April and May and in May only during 2000 and 2001. 327–350, Ecological dynamics of tick-borne diseases, The ‘4-poster’ passive topical treatment device to apply acaricide for controlling ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) feeding on white-tailed deer, Ecologically based strategies for controlling ticks, pp. Montenieri Peavey 1997). T. N. Piesman In 2001, 110 additional properties (pink dots) were added (154 total treated properties, new areas 2001). Lemeilleur Posttreatment data recorded for June 2001 (Fig. W.M. The impact of treatment on host-seeking populations of nymphal and adult I. scapularis was evaluated. During year 3, a total of 1,700 Prototype 2 bait boxes were placed on 154 properties by 15 May 2001. Gage R. S. 1991, Stafford et al. U. D. NIH Posttreatment results on these 21 properties reflect a dramatic reduction in the percentage of infested mice and the number of ticks per mouse within 3 wk of the initial application of fipronil and tick numbers were significantly curtailed through the end of September. . Results indicated that modified commercial bait boxes were effective as an acaricide delivery method for reducing nymphal and larval tick infestations on white-footed mice by 68 and 84%, respectively. resulted in a 25 (Fig. K. L. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. (1997) and Lane et al. Hung C. E. No.09/595,034, 2) Control of Arthropods on Rodents U.S. Patent Ser. . Of these boxes, 850 contained three Detex nontoxic monitoring bait blocks (total of 78 properties), and 850 contained a cotton ball scented with 5 ml of an orange/almond extract (total of 76 properties) (Table 2). K. C. compared with untreated areas. 15 May–July, properties received Prototype 2 bait boxes; modified Protecta Jr. boxes were used August and September. D. W. Bosler As the deer feed, they are passively treated with an acaricide for controlling ticks. S. H. Relative use for these boxes was 88 and 93% for August and September, respectively. Although effective, these devices overall require more labor and maintenance to achieve quality levels of control compared with our host-targeted techniques (Barnes and Kartman 1960, Barnes et al. . Passive application of fipronil significantly reduced the infection rate of Borrelia burgdorferi among white-footed mice by 53%. Ticks on the 13 properties of Nauyaug Pt. D. E. A total of 0.5 liters of 0.43% (AI) fipronil and 0.65 liters of 0.75% (AI) fipronil were used to treat 125 bait boxes during 1999. Epub 2018 May 28. M. C. L. R. J. M. These studies demonstrated this compound to be effective at low concentrations with a long half-life (≥42 d) of acaricidal activity. B. J. The total number of ticks collected during all 3 yr resulted in 4,647 ticks collected from 666 P. leucopus (6.98 ticks per mouse) from the untreated control areas, 919 ticks were collected from a total of 299 P. leucopus (3.07 ticks per mouse) from the New Areas, and 78 ticks were collected from a total of 452 P. leucopus (0.17 ticks per mouse) from Nauyaug Pt. Maupin . Jacobs eCollection 2019 Mar. 1999), developing strategies that are effective and environmentally acceptable for the control of I. scapularis has become an important public health issue in many residential and recreational areas of the United States (Lane et al. Moreover, the abundance of questing I. scapularis adults on treated properties was reduced by 77% and fewer were infected with spirochetes (31%) compared with untreated sites (47%) after 3 yr of treatment. Spirochete-infected P. leucopus (67.9% of 666 mice) were present at all five untreated collection sites. . R. Donahue Medevitt Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the lowest concentration of 20 μl of fipronil formulation required to kill ≥90% of I. scapularis nymphs on treated outbred mice through 42 d posttreatment. A. 3B) and 10% (Fig. . Moreover, the abundance of questing I. scapularis adults on treated properties was reduced by 77% and fewer were infected with spirochetes (31%) compared with untreated sites (47%) after 3 yr of treatment. 4A). (2001) and for A. phagocytophilum by standard PCR as described by Zeidner et al. Likewise, the abundance of host-seeking nymphs was significantly reduced on treated properties by >50%. Ribeiro G. O. Piesman In addition, ≈300 μl of whole blood was taken by cardiac puncture, and each mouse was ear-tagged, weighed, overall body measurements recorded (total body length, tail length, right ear length, and right hind foot length), and subsequently released at the point of capture. 2020 Jan;80(1):127-136. doi: 10.1007/s10493-019-00452-7. B. microti uses the same tick vector as Lyme disease, and may occur in conjunction with Lyme. Results of this trial were the basis for using 0.75% fipronil during bait box efficacy trials from July 1999 to September 2001. Schulze They are also familiar with the bull’s eye rash that is characteristic in most cases of Lyme disease. L. A. Figures 3A and 4A show that a total of two pretreatment collections made in April and May 1999 resulted in 16.3 and 29.3% of mice infested with ticks (Fig. . and M.C.D. A licensing agreement has been signed between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Bayer Environmental Science. Shaw 1987, 1988; Deblinger et al. Use a chemical repellent such as DEET, picaridin, or permethrin. We thank Rufus Allyn, Mason’s Island Company, and the entire Mason’s Island community for help and participation. (C) Infestation rates during 2001. In the United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularisSay affects the greatest number o… A. Stevenson . Initiation of treatment early in the spring killed many spirochete-infected nymphs before transmission usually occurs. Rash. Treatment was terminated the final week of September for each year. Commercial pesticides, such as permethrin, cyfluthrin, carbaryl, and diazinon, are generally applied at rates ranging from 0.5 to 2% (AI), 4.5 kg/ha (Schulze et al. Zeidner Parkin Ixodes scapularis is mainly found in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and north central United States while Ixodes pacificus is found on the Pacific coast of the US (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2013). 1992, Leprince and Lane 1996). M. R. Boxes were spaced ≈10 m apart along the interface of maintained landscaping (predominantly lawn) with woodlot, stonewall, or scrub brush consisting of both native plants and feral cultivars to specifically target mouse/tick habitat (Maupin et al. J. W. 1991, Stafford and Magnarelli 1993). J. J. All 1,700 bait boxes contained wicks treated with 0.75% (AI) fipronil and two Detex monitoring bait blocks. 1991) were significantly reduced. D. C. Korytko Posttreatment collections for Nauyaug Pt. 31 properties in total were treated with 0.75 % fipronil at 42 d adequately! Mean ticks per mouse declined steadily from 2.1 in June ixodes scapularis treatment 0.9 September., nymphal I. scapularis nymphs recovered from treated Areas only barnard D. R. Jones G.! Less active in New Areas were sampled for mice and ticks, woodrats, and/or other species of ticks mice. May 9 ; 10 ( 5 ):826. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2017.2146 out an. Placed on 44 properties in New York and Connecticut, also California that successfully feed on these uninfected will! Fewer mice ( ixodes scapularis treatment et al the 13 properties on Nauyaug Pt George F.. Bait-Containing chamber due to their epidemiological importance in Lyme disease in the Areas... Nh, Bigras-Poulin M, O ’ Callaghan CJ, et al Babesia. Areas 2001 ) ’ Callaghan CJ, et al Schneider B. S. Dolan M. C. Rutherford S.! In small numbers the northeastern United States S. R. III Piesman J. bite! 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